Tuscany has over 3000 years of history to look back on. Romans, aristocracy and the middle-classes all left behind their mark. Those loyal to the emperor fought bitterly against those loyal to the Pope, the Medici made a name for themselves as supporters of art.

Tuscan timeline

Etruscans and Romans

1000 B.C. - First traces of the Etruscans

800 B.C. - Founding of Etruscan city states such as Populonia, Fiesole, Arezzo or Volterra; later the League of Twelve, territorial expansion as far as Rome

510 B.C. - The Etruscan King is driven out of Rome

From 350 B.C. - Rome captures Etruria, numerous Roman colonies are founded

Toskanalive - Geschichte - Toskana, ItalienFrom 400 A.D. - Migration of the peoples, leading to the devastation in Tuscany

476 - Fall of the West Roman Empire

568 - Rule of the Langobards, Dukedom of Tuscany is founded

774 - Franks conquer the country under Carl the Great and proclaim it to be the Franconian province of Tuszia, from the 9th century a county

Conflict of Investitures: Loyalty to the Pope contra Emperor

From 1050 - Rise of rival city states in the Conflict of Investitures (Battle of power emperor/pope), Florence becomes the imperial city, Pisa is victorious against the Saracens and become an important naval power

From 1100 - Rivalry between the guelfic (loyal to the Pope) Florence, Lucca and Montepulciano and the ghibellinian (loyal to the emperor) cities Pistoia, Pisa, Siena and Arezzo

1260 - Siena's victory over Florence at the Battle of Montaperti

Bank crash and Plague

1342 - Economical crisis, Bankruptcy in Florence and Siena

1348 - Half of Tuscany's population dies during the Plague. Cities such as Siena and San Gimignano loose power

From 1397 - Rise of the banking family Medici in Florence

1406 - Florence conquers Pisa and thusly gains a port

Toskanalive - Geschichte - Toskana, ItalienMedici Era

1434 - Cosimo il Vecchio founds the Medici era in Florence, supports art

From 1494 - Carl VIII occupies Florence, Medici are driven out twice

1537 - Cosimo I. takes over power in Florence

1555 - The last free citizen's republic Siena is defeated by Florence

From 1569 - Tuscany becomes a dukedom under Cosimo I.

1737 - The last Medici Gian Gastone dies, the grand duchy Tuscany falls to the Habsburg-Lorraine (equality of all citizens)

Habsburg-Lorraine Dukes

From 1799 - Napoleonic occupation of Tuscany

From 1814 - Renewed reign of the Habsburg dukes (expansion of the infrastructure, drainage of the swamps)

1848 - Tuscany's first constitution

Toskanalive - Geschichte - Toskana, ItalienRepublic and Kingdom

1849 - Proclamation of the Tuscan Republic

1860 - Referendum in favour of joining Kingdom of Italy

From 1865 - Florence becomes provisional capital of Kingdom for seven years

Last Century

From 1920 - Rise of Fascism under Mussolini, 1936 Hitler-Stalin-Pact

From 1940 - Second World War, cities such as Pisa, Livorno and San Gimignano are devastated

1946 - Proclamation of Italian Republic, Tuscany is one of the 18 provinces

1966 - Devastating flood in Florence


How do I get to Tuscany or Elba?

The latest ferry timetables and prices, as well as good value rental cars. An overview of information on getting there and getting around. more

 Elba Island
Elba Island
Wildly romantic nature & fine beaches. more
World famous Chianti wine. more
Home of the famous marble. more
The most attractive resort in Tuscany. more
Vineyards, castles and palaces. more
Holidaying in Tuscany
Unforgettable days for everyone. more
The most beautiful city walls in Italy. more
The famous cradle of the Renaissance. more
Historical city & Piazza del Campo. more
 Castello di Brolio
Castello di Brolio
Seat of the Ricasoli family. more
The Leaning Tower & the Square of Miracles. more
Castiglione della Pescaia
Resort with charm & a fortress. more